Thursday, September 16, 2010

LDS - TENSES (NOTES)



Past
Present
Future
Simple
An action that ended at a point in the past.
An action that exists , is usual, or is repeated.
A plan for future action.

cooked
cook / cooks
will cook
(time clue)*
e.g. He cooked yesterday.
e.g. He cooks dinner every Friday.
e.g. He will cook tomorrow.
Progressive
be + main verb +ing
An action was happening (past progressive) when another action happened (simple past).
An action that is happening now.
An action that will be happening over time, in the future, when something else happens.

was / were cooking
am / is / are cooking
will be cooking
(time clue)*
e.g. He was cooking when the phone rang.
e.g. He is cooking now.
e.g. He will be cooking when you come.
Perfect
have + main verb
An action that ended before another action or time in the past.
An action that happened at an unspecified time in the past.
An action that will end before another action or time in the future.

had cooked
has / have cooked
will have cooked
(time clue)*
e.g. He had cooked the dinner when the phone rang.
e.g. He has cooked many meals.
e.g. He will have cooked dinner by the time you come.
Perfect Progressive
have + be + main verb + ing
An action that happened over time, in the past, before another time or action in the past.
An action occurring over time that started in the past and continues into the present.
An action occurring over time, in the future, before another action or time in the future.

had been cooking
has / have been cooking
will have been cooking
(time clue)*
e.g. He had been cooking for a long time before he took lessons.
e.g. He has been cooking for over an hour.
e.g. He will have been cooking all day by the time she gets home.
*Time clues: these are words that give some information about when an action occurs. Some examples are:
yesterday  
every day
tomorrow
while
now
simple past
simple present
simple future
past progressive
present progressive
.
There are many words that are time clues; some can be used to indicate a number of tenses, for instance that something happened in the past or that it will happen in the future. If you learn to recognize these time clues, you will find them very helpful. Note that some time clues can be used with more than one verb tense and also that this table is not a complete listing of all the time clues that can be used with all of the tenses

 
Past
Present
Future
Simple
Simple Past
Simple Present
Simple Future

yesterday
last year/ month/ etc.
before
for five weeks/days/etc.
one year/ month ago
every morning / day / etc.
always
usually
frequently
sometimes
tomorrow
tonight
next week/month/etc.
soon
in the future
Progressive
Past Progressive
Present Progressive
Future progressive

while
when
now
right now
this week/minute/etc.
when
after
as soon as
before
Perfect
Past Perfect
Present Perfect
Future Perfect

before
already
by the time
until then/last week/etc.
after
until now
since
ever
never
many times/ weeks/years/etc.
for three hours/ minutes/etc/
by the time you go (somewhere)
by the time you do (something)
already
Perfect Progressive
Past Perfect progressive
Present Perfect Progressive
Future Perfect Progressive

before
for one week/hour/etc.
since
for the past year/ month/ etc.
for the last 2 months/ weeks/etc.
up to now
for 6 weeks/hours/etc.
since
by the time
for ten days/weeks/etc.
by

Prepared by,
Geoffrey 

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