Thursday, September 16, 2010

LDS - SENTENCES TYPES (NOTES)

All of these sentence types further fall into four basic sentence type categories in English.
  • Simple
  • Compound
  • Complex
  • Compound - Complex
A.    Simple Sentences


Definition

A simple sentence is a sentence with one independent clause.

Note what the definition does not say. It doesn't say that a simple sentence is short or easy to understand. It doesn't say anything about phrases. A simple sentence can have forty-seven phrases, but only one independent clause.

Let's look at an example:
I love simple sentences.
(That's easy enough. It is obviously one independent clause.)

But look at this:
Being an English teacher with a penchant for syntactical complexity, I love simple sentences.
(It's longer, more challenging and contains bigger words, but it's still a simple sentence. Being an English teacher with a penchant for syntactical complexity" is a participial phrase. "With a penchant" and "for syntactical complexity" are prepositional phrases.)

Look at this:
Being an English teacher with a penchant for syntactical complexity, I love to read simple sentences upon getting up and before going to bed.
(Amazingly, it's still a simple sentence. I am piling on phrase after phrase, but the sentence still contains only one independent clause.)

Simple sentences contain no conjunction (i.e., and, but, or, etc.).
Examples

  1. Frank ate his dinner quickly.
  2. Peter and Sue visited the museum last Saturday.
  3. Are you coming to the party?

B.     Compound Sentences

Definition

A compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses.

Example:

I love conjunctive adverbs, but my students love each other.
(The independent clauses are in blue. This sentence contains no dependent clauses)

Sometimes a compound sentence contains more than two independent clauses.

Example:

I love conjunctive adverbs; my students love each other, and we all love holidays.

Sometimes longer linking words can be used.

Example:

I can name several conjunctive adverbs; consequently, my friends are impressed.

Compound sentences contain two statements that are connected by a conjunction (i.e., and, but, or, etc.).
Examples

  1. I wanted to come, but it was late.
  2. The company had an excellent year, so they gave everyone a bonus.
  3. I went shopping, and my wife went to her classes.

C.    Complex Sentences

Definition

A complex sentence is a sentence that contains one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.

Example:

Because life is complex, we need complex sentences.
(The independent clause is in blue. The dependent clause is italicized.)

Example:
Because people know that I am an English teacher,they make allowances for how I dress and what I say.
 (This sentence contains four dependent clauses. The independent clause is in blue. Note that two of the dependent clauses are inside of and part of the independent clause. Don't be alarmed. That happens all the time.)

Complex sentences contain a dependent clause and at least one independent clause. The two clauses are connected by a subordinator (i.e, which, who, although, despite, if, since, etc.).
Examples

  1. My daughter, who was late for class, arrived shortly after the bell rang.
  2. That's the man who bought our house.
  3. Although it was difficult, the class passed the test with excellent marks.

D.    Compound - Complex Sentences

Definition

A compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.

Example:

Because I am an English teacher, some people expect me to speak perfectly, and other people expect me to write perfectly.
(The dependent clause is underlined, and the independent clauses are in blue.)

Example:

Some people tell me that my grading is too tough, and others tell me that my assignments are boring.
(The independent clauses are in blue. The dependent clauses are italicized. Note that the dependent clauses occur within the independent clauses. It often happens.)

Compound - complex sentences contain at least one dependent clause and more than one independent clause. The clauses are connected by both conjunctions (i.e., but, so, and, etc.) and subordinators (i.e., who, because, although, etc.)
Examples

  1. John, who briefly visited last month, won the prize, and he took a short vacation.
  2. Jack forgot his friend's birthday, so he sent him a card when he finally remembered. 
  3. The report which Tom complied was presented to the board, but it was rejected because it was too complex.  

Prepared by,
Geoffrey

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